Getting Started with Circuits

What is an Electrical Circuit? A circuit is basically an electronic loop with a starting and an ending point with any number of components in between. Circuits can include resistors, diodes, inductors, sensors of all sizes and shapes, motors, and other handful of hundreds of thousands of components. Circuits are usually divided into three categories – analog circuits, digital circuits, and mixed-signal circuits. In this guide, you will explore all three sets of circuits.
The World Runs on CircuitsEverywhere you look, you’ll find circuits. From the cell phone in your pocket to the computer that controls your car’s emissions system, your video game console to a heart rate monitor in the hospital – all these things are full of circuits. In this guide, you’ll experiment with some simple circuits and learn the gist of the world of embedded electronics.
Simple and Complex Circuits In this guide, you will primarily explore simple circuits – but that doesn’t mean you can’t do amazing things with simple tools! When you’ve completed the tasks, your knowledge of circuits will enable you to explore exciting avenues in your projects and trigger your imagination to work wonders.


A closer look at the Arduino Board

1. Power In (Barrel Jack) Can be used with either a 9V or 12V wall-wart or battery.
2. Power In (USB Port) Provides power and communicates with your board when plugged into your computer via USB.
3. LED (RX: Receiving) This shows when the Arduino is receiving data (such as when being programmed).
4. LED (TX: Transmitting) This shows when your Arduino is transmitting data (such as when running a program).
5. LED (Pin 13: Troubleshooting) This LED is incorporated into your sketch to show if your program is running properly.
6. Pins (ARef, Ground, Digital, Rx, Tx) These various pins can be used for inputs, outputs, power, and ground. (See Diagram)
7. LED (Indicates Arduino is ON) This is a simple power indicator LED.
8. Reset Button This is a way to manually reset your Arduino, which makes your code restart.
9. ICSP Pins (Uploading Code without Boot- loader)This is for “In-Circuit Serial Programming,” used if you want to bypass the boot loader.
10. Pins(AnalogIn, PowerIn, Ground, PowerOut,Reset)These various pins can be used for inputs, out- puts, power, and ground. (See Diagram Below)
The Breadboard An electronics breadboard is referring to a solderless breadboard. These are great units for making temporary circuits and prototyping, and they require absolutely no soldering.
1. Vertical Connection + Power and – Ground
2. Horizontal Connection (a-e & f-j)
 A look inside a breadboard
Your now ready for your first task!
1. Blinking a LED